Monday, November 30, 2009

EXPANSION WITHOUT WAR

EXPANSION WITHOUT WAR The English did not
always fight wars to extend their power.

Subsidiary Alliance Lord welleSley repared a scheme to make the English the paramount pow r in India. He took recourse to the subsidiary alliance. The first to come under this system was the Nizam of Hy erabad (1798). He dismissed his army and made over ,to the English the territory which he got after the FoU1'tl{ Anglo-Mysore War.

Next to follol was Mysore (1799). Wellesley compelled the Nawab of Avadh also to accept it (1~1). He was required to keep a large British force and the Company got Gorakhpur, Rohilkhand and the southern part of Ipoab. Peshwa Baji Rao II also accepted it (1802). Many of the other Maratha states, such as the Bhonsle and the Sc I dhia (both in 1803), accepted the alliance. The Holkars were the last Maratha confederation to accept the Subsi ary Alliance in 1818.

Doctrine of Lapse The 'Do trine of Lapse' was Dalhousie's scheme under which, if the ruler of a state protected by the British Gave I t in India should die without a male issue, his adopte son would not succeed him; the state would pass or laps to the British power and the adopted son would inherit a y the personal property of the ruler. As chance wo d have it, during Lord Dalhousie's term many rulers f states died without a male issue and seven states were annexed. The most important of these were Satara (1848), Jhansi and Nagpur (1854). The other small states included Jaitpur (Bundelkhand), Sambhalpur (Orissa), and Baghat (M.P.). Lord Dalhousie annexed Avadh in 1856 after deposing Nawab Wajid Ali Shah on grounds of mis-government. Dalhousie also ended the titles of the Nawab of Carnatic and the Raja of Travancore.

Causes of the Success of the British in India

(i) Greater naval power of the British.
(ii) Development of textile industry.
(ill) Scientific division of labour.
(iv) Feelings of insecurity among the Indian merchants. (v) Lack of tinity among Indian rulers.
(vi) Lack of knowledge of international activities among
Indian rulers.
(vii) Economic prosperity and skilful diplomacy of the
British.

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